Is Maryland's Groundwater in Jeopardy?
These are questions commonly asked about the groundwater resources in Maryland. The answers vary by aquifer and location across the State. Some aquifers and locations likely have a plentiful supply of groundwater of good quality to meet current demands as well as future growth, while groundwater supply in other aquifers and locations may be greatly limited and of poor quality. Answering these questions requires effective monitoring, critical scientific investigations, and a comprehensive regional groundwater-flow and management model.
Why is Groundwater So Important?
Groundwater is nearly the sole source of fresh drinking water in Maryland's Coastal Plain (the area east of I-95).
Approximately 1.4 million people rely on groundwater in the Coastal Plain. While groundwater is not used as much
as surface water as a water source, some towns and most domestic users in central and western Maryland also rely
heavily on groundwater. A sustainable supply of clean drinking water is crucial to the health and well-being of
the citizens of Maryland, in addition to a strong economic future for the State. Aside from being a crucial drinking
water source, groundwater is also important for irrigation, commercial and industrial uses, and power plants.
Because groundwater supplies water to streams and rivers, it is vitally important for sustaining healthy populations
of fish and other aquatic organisms.
Problems Confronting Groundwater Management in Maryland
Groundwater supply in Maryland may be severely constrained in some areas in the future as a result of overuse of the aquifers and by poor water quality. Permitted withdrawals are assessed on an individual permit (well or well field) basis, while there is no systematic assessment of the effects from domestic withdrawals. For effective water-resources planning, it is critical that the cumulative impact of the many thousands of wells pumping from Maryland's aquifers, and the extent to which the aquifers are being recharged, be assessed. Additionally, water-level and water-quality monitoring are essential to evaluate the "health" of the aquifers.
SPECIFIC PROBLEMS BY REGION